Source code for speechbrain.lm.ngram

N-gram language model query interface

 * Aku Rouhe 2020
import collections

NEGINFINITY = float("-inf")

[docs] class BackoffNgramLM: """ Query interface for backoff N-gram language models The ngrams format is best explained by an example query: P( world | <s>, hello ), i.e. trigram model, probability of "world" given "<s> hello", is: `ngrams[2][("<s>", "hello")]["world"]` On the top level, ngrams is a dict of different history lengths, and each order is a dict, with contexts (tuples) as keys and (log-)distributions (dicts) as values. The backoffs format is a little simpler. On the top level, backoffs is a list of different context-orders, and each order is a mapping (dict) from backoff context to backoff (log-)weight Arguments --------- ngrams : dict The N-gram log probabilities. This is a triply nested dict. The first layer is indexed by N-gram order (integer). The second layer is indexed by the context (tuple of tokens). The third layer is indexed by tokens, and maps to the log prob. Example: log(P(fox|a quick red)) = -5.3 is accessed by: `ngrams[4][('a', 'quick', 'red')]['fox']` backoffs : dict The backoff log weights. This is a doubly nested dict. The first layer is indexed by N-gram order (integer). The second layer is indexed by the backoff history (tuple of tokens) i.e. the context on which the probability distribution is conditioned on. This maps to the log weights. Example: If log(P(fox|a quick red)) is not listed, we find log(backoff(a quick red)) = -23.4, which is accessed: `backoffs[3][('a', 'quick', 'red')]` This dict needs to have entries for orders up to at least N-1 (even if they are empty). It may also have entries for order N, though those can never be accessed. Example ------- >>> import math >>> ngrams = {1: {tuple(): {'a': -0.6931, 'b': -0.6931}}, ... 2: {('a',): {'a': -0.6931, 'b': -0.6931}, ... ('b',): {'a': -0.6931}}} >>> backoffs = {1: {('b',): 0.}} >>> lm = BackoffNgramLM(ngrams, backoffs) >>> round(math.exp(lm.logprob('a', ('b',))), 1) 0.5 >>> round(math.exp(lm.logprob('b', ('b',))), 1) 0.5 """ def __init__(self, ngrams, backoffs): # Backoffs of length equal to max N-gram order can never be used, # but interface-wise we support having that order specified as well. # This plays nice e.g. with ARPA model loading. order = len(ngrams) if not (len(backoffs) == order or len(backoffs) == order - 1): raise ValueError("Backoffs dict needs to be of order N or N-1") self.ngrams = ngrams self.backoffs = backoffs self.top_order = order
[docs] def logprob(self, token, context=tuple()): """Computes the backoff log weights and applies them.""" # If a longer context is given than we can ever use, # just use less context. query_order = len(context) + 1 if query_order > self.top_order: return self.logprob(token, context[1:]) # Now, let's see if we have both: # a distribution for the query context at all # and if so, a probability for the token. # Then we'll just return that. if ( context in self.ngrams[query_order] and token in self.ngrams[query_order][context] ): return self.ngrams[query_order][context][token] # If we're here, no direct probability stored for the query. # Missing unigram queries are a special case, the recursion will stop. if query_order == 1: return NEGINFINITY # Zeroth order for not found # Otherwise, we'll backoff to lower order model. # First, we'll get add the backoff log weight context_order = query_order - 1 backoff_log_weight = self.backoffs[context_order].get(context, 0.0) # And then just recurse: lp = self.logprob(token, context[1:]) return lp + backoff_log_weight
[docs] def ngram_evaluation_details(data, LM): """ Evaluates the N-gram LM on each sentence in data Call `ngram_perplexity` with the output of this function to compute the perplexity. Arguments --------- data : iterator An iterator over sentences, where each sentence should be an iterator as returned by `speechbrain.lm.counting.ngrams_for_evaluation` LM : BackoffNgramLM The language model to evaluate Returns ------- list List of `collections.Counter`s which have the keys "num_tokens" and "neglogprob", giving the number of tokens and logprob of each sentence (in the same order as data). NOTE ---- The `collections.Counter` cannot add negative numbers. Thus it is important to use negative log probabilities (always >=0). Example ------- >>> class MockLM: ... def __init__(self): ... self.top_order = 3 ... def logprob(self, token, context): ... return -1.0 >>> LM = MockLM() >>> data = [[("S", ("<s>",)), ... ("p", ("<s>", "S")), ... ("e", ("S", "p")), ... ("e", ("p", "e")), ... ("c", ("e", "e")), ... ("h", ("e", "c")), ... ("</s>", ("c", "h"))], ... [("B", ("<s>",)), ... ("r", ("<s>", "B")), ... ("a", ("B", "r")), ... ("i", ("r", "a")), ... ("n", ("a", "i")), ... ("</s>", ("i", "n"))]] >>> sum(ngram_evaluation_details(data, LM), collections.Counter()) Counter({'num_tokens': 13, 'neglogprob': 13.0}) """ details = [] for sentence in data: counter = collections.Counter() for token, context in sentence: counter["num_tokens"] += 1 counter["neglogprob"] += -LM.logprob(token, context) details.append(counter) return details
[docs] def ngram_perplexity(eval_details, logbase=10.0): """ Computes perplexity from a list of individual sentence evaluations. Arguments --------- eval_details : list List of individual sentence evaluations. As returned by `ngram_evaluation_details` logbase : float The logarithm base to use. Returns ------- float The computed perplexity. Example ------- >>> eval_details = [ ... collections.Counter(neglogprob=5, num_tokens=5), ... collections.Counter(neglogprob=15, num_tokens=15)] >>> ngram_perplexity(eval_details) 10.0 """ counter = sum(eval_details, collections.Counter()) exponent = counter["neglogprob"] / counter["num_tokens"] perplexity = logbase ** exponent return perplexity